Robinson was born Oct. 12, 1997 in Manassas, Virginia. His father, Verdell Robinson, played collegiate basketball at the University of Charleston and coached Manassas Park High School for seven seasons. Robinson's family had season tickets to the Washington Wizards when he was a child. First, he attended Montrose Christian School in Rockville, Maryland in early high school as was a teammate of future NBA player Justin Anderson. He transferred to St. James School in Hagerstown, Maryland before his junior campaign. As a senior, Robinson averaged 21.8 points, 7.7 assists, 4.3 rebounds and 2.2 steals per game, and he was named the Washington County Player of the Year. In college, he played at Virginia Tech for four seasons. In 2018, he made Second Team All-ACC. Robinson played four years at Virginia Tech. As a freshman, he started 19 of 35 appearances, averaging 7.3 points, 2.8 assists and 1.8 rebounds in 23.2 minutes. During his sophomore season, he became a full-time starter, getting the nod in all 33 of his appearances. That season, he averaged 10.4 points, 4.9 assists and 3.2 rebounds in 31.5 minutes. As a junior, Robinson averaged 14.0 points, 5.6 assists, 2.8 rebounds and 1.2 steals. During his final year, he averaged 13.5 points, 5.0 assists, 3.2 rebounds and 1.6 steals. He was also named to the ACC All-Second Team. Robinson's best collegiate performance was a win over Syracuse on Jan. 26, 2019, where he recorded 35 points (9-13 FG, 9-13 3Pt, 8-10 FT), eight assists and three rebounds in 37 minutes.