Fouls

The following fouls can result in a change of possession or the shooting of free throws:

Technical Foul (or "Tech") - A penalty for a violation of conduct, such as abusive language or fighting. Each technical foul awards a free throw to the opposing team. Two technical fouls in one game mean an automatic ejection for the offending player or coach.

Offensive Foul - Called when the player with the ball charges into a defender who is in a stationary, defensive position.

Alvin Williams
NBA teams must attempt a shot within 24 seconds.
NBAE Photos

Defensive Foul - Called after any unnecessary or illegal contact either on the ball or away from the ball.

Violations

The following violations result in a change of possession:

24-Second Violation - NBA teams must attempt a shot within 24 seconds.

Three in the Key - An offensive or defensive player cannot remain in the lane (key) for more than three seconds at a time.

Double Dribble - A violation in which a player dribbles the ball, stops, then begins to dribble again.

Charging - A violation in which an offensive player runs into a stationary opponent.

Travelling - A violation in which a player takes too many steps without dribbling the basketball.

Eight-Second Violation - After a basket, the offensive team has eight seconds to get the ball over midcourt.

Basketball U Palming - A violation in which a player moves his hand under the ball and scoops it while dribbling.

Goaltending - When a defensive player interferes illegally with a shot on the rim or on a downward path to the hoop; the shot is assumed in and the offensive team receives the basket.